Chemical substances


Sodium (Na)

   ·  Sodium, together with potassium maintain the balance between acids and alkalinises in the organism.
   ·  It is significant for the transmission of impulses in muscles and nerves and for the metabolism.
   ·  It helps to maintain osmotic pressure in the tissues.
   ·  It supports the transmission of nerve impulses.
   ·  It stimulates kidney activity and prevents creation of calculi.

This mineral is found particularly in salt, smoked meats, cheese, bread, bakery, beetroot, carrot, and baking soda. Recommended daily allowance is up to 500 mg. Since many people add a lot of salt to their food and with a lot of food containing excess salt itself, the population does not suffer from sodium deficiency. Sodium deficiency is very rare, but when it occurs, people can experience hyper-perspiration, dehydration, thirst, flatulence, muscle and weight loss, exhaustion and headaches. The result of sodium overdose is a rise of blood pressure, people can experience dizziness and foot swellings – caused by water retention. High sodium concentration can be caused by a sudden dehydration of the organism - 280 grams of NaCl is a toxic dose for a human.

Calcium (Ca)

   ·  Calcium neutralizes lactic acid surplus produced in body after physical activity.
   ·  It supports the transmission of nerve impulses.
   ·  It assists iron absorption.
   ·  It is an antioxidant - prevents cancer.
   ·  It lowers high blood pressure, cholesterol level and its sufficiency prevents muscle cramps (in a balanced ratio with magnesium).
   ·  It impacts blood coagulation; activates and inhibits secretion of certain hormones and enzymes.
   ·  It affects nerve/muscle response, participates in muscle contraction, maintains selective permeability of membranes.

Calcium is a mineral present in the highest amount in a body. There is more than 1 kg of calcium in an adult organism. Up to 99% of that is found in bones and teeth. Only a small amount of calcium in a body is found in a free ionised form Ca2+. These ions are important for regulation of various physiological actions. Recommended daily allowance is up to 1200 mg for people younger than 25 and 800 mg for people older than 25. It is appropriate to add calcium combined with optimum amount of magnesium.

Calcium deficiency can result in rachitis in children, osteoporosis in adults and in elderly people. Furthermore, it can cause tooth decay, muscle-aches, skin disorders, pigment loss, nerve impulse defect, blood coagulation and heart problems. Calcium overdose can lead to problems with calculi, heart arrhythmia and increased blood pressure.

Magnesium (Mg)

   ·  Magnesium activates approximately 300 various enzymes in cells.
   ·  It supports heart activity favourably and participates in nerve and muscle contraction.
   ·  Loosens stress – it is generally known as anti-stress mineral.
   ·  It is very important for metabolism sugars, lipids, and proteins in human body and is necessary for proteo-synthesis (production of proteins).
   ·  It helps to prevent the storage of calcium in kidneys and calculi formation.
   ·  It assists in the utilization of vitamins C and E.

Based on its above-mentioned qualities, magnesium is one of the most important minerals. Its deficiency means health problems in many aspects. Magnesium amounts to around 30g in an average 70 kg human body. Most of it is fixed among calcium in bones. Magnesium is found primarily in vegetal food. Great source of magnesium is chlorophyll.
Present, processed food is lacking magnesium. Its deficiency can cause heart arrhythmia, heart attack; failure in functioning of kidneys, thyroid and parathyroid glands. Deficiency of magnesium can frequently cause migraines, irritability, exhaustion, hair loss, increased tooth decay, and fragile nails. A long-term magnesium deficiency might cause formation of carcinogens. People consuming lots of dairy products, women taking contraceptives and alcoholics are more likely to suffer magnesium deficiency. Magnesium is associated with calcium. Their ratio in body should be approximately 1:2 (Mg:Ca). Therefore, magnesium deficiency can cause calcium overdose.
Magnesium overdose can negatively affect central nerve system and in extreme cases (less likely), it can cause kidney malfunction. The recommended daily allowance is 300 to 350 mg and 250 to 500 mg as a supplement.


Chlorine  (Cl)

   ·  Chlorine maintains blood pH (balance between acids and bases in human body).
   ·  It helps to maintain osmotic pressure.
   ·  It supports liver activity and assists the disposal of harmful substances from an organism.
   ·  It is found in stomach and assists the digestion.

The human body contains only about 105 mg of this mineral found particularly in blood, but also in other bodily fluids. Chlorine deficiency can cause tooth and hair loss and cramps. Its overdose can not be identified by any side effects. Its source comes mainly from table salt.

Iron  (Fe)

   ·  As a part of the haemoglobin it binds oxygen to red blood cells and ensures exchange of breathing gases.
   ·  It is essential for growth.

Iron belongs to the microelements, which means that only a small amount of iron is required by an organism. Its importance has been overemphasized, which has led to excessive usage. Humans usually do not suffer from an iron shortage shortage, because we consume it in sufficient amounts. People with bleeding conditions, intestinal problems and high class athletes are affected the most by iron deficiency. Iron deficiency causes a decrease in the number of red blood cells, affecting physical performance, and causes frequent feelings of sickness. Iron is a mineral, over consumption of which is not disposed of by an organism; the organism just becomes clogged up. Symptoms of over consumption are often more serious than those of a deficiency. Vitamin E and C efficiency is adversely affected. In serious cases, the heart and liver can be harmed (cirrhosis of the liver), or it can lead to diabetes. It is not advised to consume iron in separate doses, but rather as part of a complex preparation with other minerals. Iron absorption is prevented by drinking beverages such as tee or coffee. Red meat, nuts, beans, green leaf vegetables and eggs are rich sources of this microelement. Iron is the predominant microelement in our body. The recommended daily dose is 6 to 30 mg.


Fluorine  (F)

   ·  Participates in glucose metabolism and synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol.
   ·  Helps to maintain blood pressure and body weight.
   ·  Increases insulin operation and prevents diabetes.
   ·  Affects positively the CNS, liver and endocrine gland.

Fluoride is part of the bones, teeth, thyroid gland, and brain. Drinking water contains fluoride in many countries; the concentration of fluoride ions is always less than 1 mg per litre. Excessive fluoride is considered to be toxic. Fluoride is deposited in the bones and causes their weakening and morphological changes. The acknowledged daily dose is 1.5 to 4 mg.

Potassium  (K)

   ·  Potassium is very important for the transmission of impulses in muscles and for metabolism.
   ·  Assists the metabolism of saccharine, by glycogen transport. Stimulates insulin secretion and assists the transformation of glucose to glycogen.
   ·  Is used to maintain the balance between acids and alkalinises in organisms, impacts osmotic pressure and water management.
   ·  Ensures disposal of waste matter from the body.

Potassium is rarely found in ordinary food (or then only in small amounts). It is mostly found in powdered milk. It can also be found in milk and other dairy products, fish, meats, bananas, pulses, soy, and potatoes. It is added to energy bars and because of its effects on the muscles, it is also in sports drinks.
The recommended daily dose for adults is up to 4000 mg whereas for children it is up to 3000 mg. A deficiency can cause heart arrhythmia, high blood pressure and nervous behaviour. An excess can cause low blood pressure and a feeling of weakness and can also effect the heart too.

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